• Bastick CH, Cotching WE (1996) Drainage Information Package. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. Hobart, Tasmania. Available at:

  • Forest Practices Authority 2020. Forest Practices Code. Forest Practices Authority, Hobart, Tasmania.
  • Foroda E (2021) Consequences of Poor Drainage. Available at:
  • Hill K, Hodgkinson R, Harris D, Newell Price (2018) Field drainage guide. Principles, installations and maintenance. Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, Warwickshire, UK.
  • Magdoff F, van Es, H (2021). Building soils for better crops: ecological management for healthy soils. Sustainable Agriculture Network handbook series, book 10. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  • Moorfoot W (2021) The Benefits of Agricultural Land Drainage. Available at:
  • Terry T (2020) Consequences of poor drainage. Available at:
  • Valipour M, Krasilnikof J, Yannopoulos S, Kumar R, Deng J, Roccaro P, Mays L, Grismer M, Angelakis A (2020) The Evolution of Agricultural Drainage from the Earliest Times to the Present. Sustainability 12. 10.3390/su12010416.

How soils drain

  • Cook FJ, Knight JH 2003 Oxygen Transport to Plant Roots: Modeling for Physical Understanding of Soil Aeration. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 67:20–31.
  • Engelar WMHG, Yoneyama T (2000) Combined effects of soil waterlogging and compaction on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth, soil aeration, soil N transformations and N discrimination. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32, 484-493.
  • Glinski J, Stepniewski W (1985) Soil aeration and its role for plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Hillel, D (1998) Environmental soil physics. Academic Press. San Diego.
  • Hardie MA (2011) Effect of antecedent soil moisture on infiltration and preferential flow in texture contrast soils. Doctor of philosophy degree submission. University of Tasmania.
  • Hardie MA, Doyle RB, Cotching WE, Lisson S (2012) Subsurface Lateral Flow in Texture-Contrast (Duplex) Soils and Catchments with Shallow Bedrock. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, doi:10.1155/2012/861358.
  • Hocking M, Bastick CJ, Dyson P, Lynch S (2005) Understanding Groundwater Flow Systems and processes causing salinity in the Northern Midlands. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Environment and Northern Midlands Council.
  • Houlbrooke DJ, Monaghan RM (2009) The influence of soil drainage characteristics on contaminant leakage risk associated with the land application of farm dairy effluent. Report for Environment Southland. AgResearch Ltd.
  • Srinivasan MS, Gburek WJ, Hamlett JM (2002) Dynamics of stormflow generation – A hillslope-scale field study in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Hydrological Processes 16, 649-665.

Planning and design

Digital technology for drainage


  • Cotching WE (2009) Soil Health for Farming in Tasmania, Bill Cotching, Devonport, Tasmania, pp. 116. ISBN 978-0-646-50764-4.

Surface drains

  • Cotching WE (2000) Nutrient runoff from a dairy pasture on a hump and hollow drainage system at Togari, Northwest Tasmania. Natural Resource Management 3 (2) 18-24.
  • Cotching WE, Bakker D (2002) Raised bed cropping – Tasmania fact sheet. The National Soil Quality Monitoring Program. Available at:
  • Cotching WE, Dean GJ (2003) Soil properties under raised bed farming systems in Northern Tasmania. Technical Report. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania.
  • Holz GK (2010) Sources and processes of contaminant loss from an intensively grazed catchment inferred from patterns in discharge and concentration of thirteen analytes using high intensity sampling. Journal of Hydrology 383, 194-208.

Mole drains

Sodic and saline soils

  • Couglan, and H Creswell) pp 190-199 (CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria).
  • Sorensen S (1995) Dispersive Soils: Guide for use in farm dam construction. DNRQ96017, Rural Water Advisory Services. Department of Natural Resources Queensland, Brisbane.
  • Emerson WW (2002) Emerson Dispersion Test, In ‘Soil Physical Measurement and Interpretation for Land Evaluation, Australian Soil and Land Survey Handbook Series, Vol. 5’. (Eds N McKenzie, K
  • Hardie MA, Doyle RB, Cotching WE, Duckett T, Zund P (2009) Dispersive Soils and their Management, Technical Reference Manual. Sustainable Land Use, Department of Primary Industries and Water. Hobart, Tasmania ISBN 978-0-7246-6774-1.
  • Lisson SN, Cotching WE (2008) Best-bet salinity management practices for the Back Creek catchment - Water balance impacts of current land management practice. CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems and Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research.